Fragment islands, viewed from the paradigm of island biogeographic theory, depend on continual immigration from continental sources to maintain levels of species diversity, or otherwise undergo a period of relaxation where species diversity declines to a lower equilibrium. Japan is a recently derived fragment island with a rich endemic flora and fauna. These endemic species have been described as paleoendemics, and conversely as recently derived Pleistocene colonists. Geological events in the Miocene period, notably the fragmentation and collision of islands, and the subsequent uplift of mountains in central Japan, provided opportunities for genetic isolation. More recently, cyclical climatic change during the Pliocene and Pleistocene periods led to intermittent land bridge connections to continental Asia. Here we investigate the pattern and timing of diversification in a diverse endemic lineage in order to test whether ongoing migration has sustained species diversity, whether there is evidence of relaxation, and how geological and climatic events are associated with lineage diversification. Using multi-locus genetic data, we test these hypotheses in a poorly dispersing, cold-adapted terrestrial insect lineage (Grylloblattodea: Grylloblattidae) sampled from Japan, Korea, and Russia. In phylogenetic analyses of concatenated data and a species tree approach, we find evidence of three deeply divergent lineages of rock-crawlers in Japan consistent with the pattern of island fragmentation from continental Asia. Tests of lineage diversification rates suggest that relaxation has not occurred and instead endemism has increased in the Japanese Grylloblattidae following mountain-building events in the Miocene. Although the importance of climate change in generating species diversity is a commonly held paradigm in Japanese biogeography, our analyses, including analyses of demographic change and phylogeographic range shifts in putative species, suggests that Pleistocene climatic change has had a limited effect on the diversification of rock-crawlers. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- TERRESTRIAL FAUNA
- HIGH MOUNTAINS
- HAPLOTYPE RECONSTRUCTION
- GENETIC DIVERSITY
- MOLECULAR CLOCK
- ALPINE PLANTS
- LAKE BIWA
[Schoville, Sean D.; Machida, Ryuichiro] Univ Tsukuba, Sugadaira Montane Res Ctr, Ueda, Nagano 3862204, Japan; [Uchifune, Toshiki] Yokosuka City Museum, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 2380016, Japan
Schoville, SD (reprint author), Univ Grenoble 1, CNRS, TIMC IMAG UMR 5525, Equipe Biol Computat & Math, F-38041 Grenoble, France.
- Techniques de l'Ingénierie Médicale et de la Complexité - Informatique, Mathématiques et Applications de Grenoble (TIMC-IMAG), UMR5525